Stimulus discrimination occurs in psychology when there are different consequences for the same behavior depending on the situation. An example of a stimulus discrimination is a joke that could be told with the result of laughter among a group of friends, but the same joke may have repatriation if it is told in a church hall setting. A discrimination is formed only when the response of similar behaviors is different in changing situations or environments.
This discrimination could be the result of peer attitudes toward the behavior or it could be the result of a intuition that says the behavior is not appropriate in certain situations. The stimulus discrimination is what will eventually lead to stimulus generalization. The generalization is that a person will respond in the same way to two different stimuli that may have small differences within them.
A child will not know the difference between breeds of dogs, but will often know that different breeds are all considered to be dogs. They will not have the discrimination between a German shepherd and a Chihuahua, but will know that both of them are dogs. They will often point out the fact that dogs are dogs, but they may also use discrimination to label them small or large dogs. Home World View. What Is an Absolute Threshold in Psychology?
What Is an Encoding Failure in Psychology? What Are Examples of Moral Lessons?Discrimination is an action or practice that excludes, disadvantages, or merely differentiates between individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of some ascribed or perceived trait, although the definition itself is subject to substantial debate.
The sociological study of discrimination could be divided into two types of inquiries: discrimination as a social phenomenon to be explained and discrimination as an explanation for other observed social phenomenon.
Discrimination has been addressed by a wide range of disciplines as an explanatory object—including sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, economics, and law—all seeking to shed light on why discrimination occurs and what conditions give rise to and reproduce its practice. What distinguishes a sociological approach to discrimination as an explanatory object from that in other disciplines, namely psychology or economics, is its insistence on looking at the macro level of analysis, explaining the phenomenon as a result of social processes not necessarily reducible to individual-level preferences or cognitive processes.
Sociologists have also addressed discrimination as an explanation for an observed phenomenon of interest, namely social stratification: the unequal distribution of status, material benefits, and political rights. Defining discrimination is a difficult task. Selecting among the competing definitions of discrimination has not only theoretical implications, but also methodological implications, because the definition determines the scope of empirical inquiry and appropriate methods for identification and study of the phenomenon.
Because discrimination is typically considered something antithetical to norms of fair and equal treatment in a democratic market society, there are also significant normative implications to defining discrimination. Most definitions of discrimination cluster around two related yet distinguishable means of defining the phenomenon: intentional discrimination and disparate impact.
Each of these two broad classes of definitions admits of a number of competing subdefinitions.
Pager and Shepherd and Blank, et al. Discrimination is often distinguished from other related phenomena such as racism, sexism, prejudice, or stereotypes in that discrimination refers to a set of behaviors, whereas the other concepts refer to ideology, attitudes, or beliefs that might, or might not, translate into discriminatory actions.
Allport is a classic and seminal conceptual treatment of discrimination, explored in relation to cognitive and attitudinal dispositions such as categorization, stereotypes, and prejudice. Given the wide range of plausible definitions of discrimination, a researcher must first identify and justify his or her choice of a definition of discrimination before embarking on an explanatory or empirical agenda. Allport, Gordon W. The nature of prejudice.
Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. Blank, Rebecca M. Defining discrimination.
In Measuring racial discrimination. Edited by Rebecca M. Blank, Marilyn Dabady, and Constance F. Citro, 55— Chapter 3 has a brief and accessible discussion of the various definitions of racial discrimination, which is applicable to discrimination against other types of groups.
This chapter also motivates the discussion on racial discrimination by presenting data on differential outcomes between white and black Americans in five different domains: education, labor market, the criminal justice system, the housing market, mortgage lending, and health care. Pager, Devah, and Hana Shepherd. The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annual Review of Sociology — DOI: An overview of recent empirical work on racial discrimination in labor markets, housing, and credit markets.
The paper starts with a brief discussion of the concept of discrimination and methods for detecting and measuring its presence. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.Human conflict can result in crime, war, and mass murder, such as genocide. Prejudice and discrimination often are root causes of human conflict, which explains how strangers come to hate one another to the extreme of causing others harm.
Prejudice and discrimination affect everyone. In this section we will examine the definitions of prejudice and discrimination, examples of these concepts, and causes of these biases. Prejudice and discrimination occur across the globe. As we discussed in the opening story of Trayvon Martin, humans are very diverse and although we share many similarities, we also have many differences. The social groups we belong to help form our identities Tajfel, These differences may be difficult for some people to reconcile, which may lead to prejudice toward people who are different.
Prejudice is common against people who are members of an unfamiliar cultural group. Thus, certain types of education, contact, interactions, and building relationships with members of different cultural groups can reduce the tendency toward prejudice. In fact, simply imagining interacting with members of different cultural groups might affect prejudice.
Indeed, when experimental participants were asked to imagine themselves positively interacting with someone from a different group, this led to an increased positive attitude toward the other group and an increase in positive traits associated with the other group. What are some examples of social groups that you belong to that contribute to your identity? Social groups can include gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, social class, religion, sexual orientation, profession, and many more.
And, as is true for social roles, you can simultaneously be a member of more than one social group. An example of prejudice is having a negative attitude toward people who are not born in the United States. Although people holding this prejudiced attitude do not know all people who were not born in the United States, they dislike them due to their status as foreigners. Can you think of a prejudiced attitude you have held toward a group of people?
How did your prejudice develop? Prejudice often begins in the form of a stereotype —that is, a negative belief about individuals based solely on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual characteristics. Stereotypes become overgeneralized and applied to all members of a group.
We cannot possibly know each individual person of advanced age to know that all older adults are slow and incompetent. Therefore, this negative belief is overgeneralized to all members of the group, even though many of the individual group members may in fact be spry and intelligent.
Another example of a well-known stereotype involves beliefs about racial differences among athletes. As Hodge, Burden, Robinson, and Bennett point out, Black male athletes are often believed to be more athletic, yet less intelligent, than their White male counterparts. These beliefs persist despite a number of high profile examples to the contrary. Sadly, such beliefs often influence how these athletes are treated by others and how they view themselves and their own capabilities.
Whether or not you agree with a stereotype, stereotypes are generally well-known within in a given culture Devine, Sometimes people will act on their prejudiced attitudes toward a group of people, and this behavior is known as discrimination. As a result of holding negative beliefs stereotypes and negative attitudes prejudice about a particular group, people often treat the target of prejudice poorly, such as excluding older adults from their circle of friends.
Have you ever been the target of discrimination? If so, how did this negative treatment make you feel? However, it is important to also point out that people can hold positive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward individuals based on group membership; for example, they would show preferential treatment for people who are like themselves—that is, who share the same gender, race, or favorite sports team.
This video demonstrates the concepts of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. In the video, a social experiment is conducted in a park where three people try to steal a bike out in the open. The race and gender of the thief is varied: a White male teenager, a Black male teenager, and a White female.
Does anyone try to stop them? The treatment of the teenagers in the video demonstrates the concept of racism. Why are these aspects of an unfamiliar person so important?It is an observable behavior, it refers to the manifest acts of the people towards the members of the groups. And sexism when it is based on sex and whoever is sexist is called. It is usually stereotypes and prejudices that lead to discrimination.
Understanding Stimulus Discrimination in Psychology
It is the evaluation of someone based on their race, sex, religion or simply because they belong to another group than their own. They represent the knowledge that is had about the members of certain groups, although it is known that this knowledge is false. For example, older people are weak, Americans suffer from obesity, or Germans are not friendly.
There have been numerous investigations to study the concept of discrimination and its possible causes. Next we will see carefully what each one of these factors and its different components consists of.
From this approach, discrimination is the result of tensions, emotions, fears and needs of the subject. This behavior serves to reduce negative emotional states or satisfy basic needs. Within the motivational factors we can distinguish:. Some researchers point out that discrimination, just as prejudices are learned. This information learned usually comes from three different sources:.
Different studies have concluded that there is an authoritarian personality type, and that more authoritarian individuals tend to be more racist. In this way it has been shown that personality factors can also influence whether a person uses discrimination or not.
Like the others, it is not a determining factor. It may happen that an individual has an authoritarian personality but never gets to practice discrimination.
The belief that a group possesses negative characteristics generates dislike towards it and therefore discriminatory behaviors.
The main component in this case is the negative prejudices about that group. For example, a fundamental aspect of the Nazi campaigns against the Jews was the negative propaganda they spread about them. In this way they justified the arrests and subsequent murders. They showed the Jews as conspirators, dirty and dangerous and therefore it was necessary to control them.
The formation of these negative stereotypes that lead to discrimination can come from two processes:.
These prejudices are once again often learned from parents, peers and institutions. They are also acquired through the experiences that have been experienced with this group that is generalized to all members. Therefore, biases or errors in processing information strengthen negative beliefs or stereotypes about a group even if they are erroneous. We can list consequences of discrimination at different levels:. In the first place, the members who belong to a minority on what the discrimination is exercised are objectively worse than they would be if there were no such prejudices against them.
They have a psychological, economic and physical impact. In addition, members of minority groups have fewer jobs, have more difficulties in accessing a job, are less prestigious positions and have lower salaries than members of the majority. On the other hand, individuals who belong to minority groups are more likely to be victims of the violence of the subjects that are part of majority groups.
Discrimination affects different areas of society, in many cases preventing their own growth because there is a social fracture and prevents the benefits of diversity. In addition, the group tends to be marginalized, avoiding contact with them and being excluded from society. Usually this marginalization results in more serious problems such as the formation of gangs that engage in illegal and criminal acts.
Discrimination also generates in people a series of negative attitudes and behaviors such as anger and aggression against members who do not belong to their group. On many occasions this leads to verbal and physical violence among members of different groups that can have very serious consequences such as murder.The decade of the s witnessed acceleration in the convergence of theoretical and experimental studies of discrimination and generalization from the domains of classical conditioning and instrumental operant learning.
Classical conditioning refers to the establishment of behavioral adaptations conditioned responses; CRs by the methods of Pavlov. Instrumental learning is a general term for goal-seeking behavior, and operant conditioning refers to reinforcement learning by the methods of Skinner.
The term discrimination refers to the capacity of organisms to learn different modes of behavior depending on signals or cues from the environment about the imminence or accessibility of reinforcement. Generalization refers to stimulus generalization, the capacity for signals or cues that are different from those used for establishing learned behavior to evoke this behavior. Stimulus generalization in classical conditioning refers to the capacity of a stimulus other than the conditioned stimulus to evoke a CR.
In operant conditioning, one set of stimuli, an occasion setter OSmight evoke the behavior controlled by another OS, depending on their shared features or similarity. Skinner coined the term occasion setter to refer to signals or cues that predict reinforcement.
In recent years, the term occasion setting has been extended to encompass both classical and operant forms of behavioral learning.
As a consequence of this mixing, the terminology and paradigms used in occasion setting research borrow from the two domains. The mixture of the two domains has led to a healthy integration of methods and ideas Schmajuk and Holland, The convergence of ideas about discriminations and generalization from classical and operant conditioning began during the late s, when the principles of stimulus control enunciated by operant-conditioning studies involving pigeons were found to extend to eyeblink conditioning in rabbits Moore, Specifically, generalization along an auditory frequency dimension shares many of the same characteristics as visual wavelength generalization in pigeons.
Conditioned stimulus preexposure latent inhibition also generalizes along an auditory frequency dimension, with gradients forming an inverted V shape Siegel, Latent inhibition refers to retarded classical conditioning as a result of preexposure to the CS.
Inverted-V-shape generalization gradients have also been observed with tonal stimuli trained with Pavlov's conditioned inhibition procedure Mis, Lumia, and Moore, Inverted-V generalization gradients have been observed in pigeon operant tasks Hearst, Occasion setters are stimulus featuressuch as the presence of a light or tone, that serve as discriminative stimuli.
For example, the presence of a light might signal that operant responses will be reinforced. The absence of this light would signal that operant responses are not reinforced.
In general, a feature-positive paradigm is one in which the OS signals reinforcement; a feature-negative paradigm is one in which the OS signals the absence of reinforcement.
The presence of a light or tone might signal reinforcement, whereas its absence signals nonreinforcement. In classical conditioning a feature-positive occasion-setting task would involve adding a feature to the CS. For example, if the CS is a tone, the addition of a light sets the occasion for reinforcement, whereas the tone alone would not signal reinforcement.
A feature-negative task would be one in which the light, instead of signaling reinforcement when presented with the tone, would signal its absences. If the occasion setter overlaps the CS and signals the reinforcement, it can result in a more robust CR than would otherwise be the case. This feature-negative discrimination recognizing the absence of an OS as a signal of the absence of the US is a relatively difficult discrimination for animals to master.
In fact, a classical conditioning situation like this is called a conditioned inhibition paradigmand research has shown that this is relatively difficult discrimination for animals to master.When a control group took the same test without this information, students performed equally well regardless of race. After Johnny and James have a discussion on the meaning of life, their original viewpoints converge closer together.
The fundamental attribution error is when people place too strong of an emphasis on internal characteristics when judging an externally influenced behavior.
In the correct answer option, Mark committed the fundamental attribution error because he automatically assumes the other person intended to trip him, but the other person might have tripped themselves or have just not been paying attention to their surroundings.
Which type of attribution would cause someone to believe an individual's behavior is due to their life situation or environment? In external attribution, people believe that a person's behavior is a result of their situation or environment, as opposed to something inate within them, as with internal attribution.
The tendency to attribute one's successes to internal factors, and one's failures to external factors. Self-serving bias causes people to view their successes as a result of something positive within themselves, and their failures as a result of their situation, or something outside of their control.
If an individual gets an unusually bad grade on an exam and attributes it to his lack of preperation due to a busy schedule, what type of attribution is he making? However, since he blames the grade on temporary factors, rather than something permanent, such as "being unlucky," we can determine that he is making an unstable attribution. What does the LaPiere study of tell us about the relationship between attitudes and behaviors? There is a strong correlation between a person's attitude about something and their behavior towards that thing.
Although attitudes are important, they are not always great indicators of how a person will behave. The stronger the attitude one has towards something, the more likely this will influence their behavior.The difference between classical and operant conditioning - Peggy Andover
LaPiere took one Chinese couple around America to visit restaurants and test whether, amidst intense xenophobia towards Chinese people that existed at this time, their staff would serve them. This study demonstrates that one may express a strong attitude towards something, but it may not have any influence on behavior. In this case, the xenophobic attitude expressed by the staff did not impact their behavior, which resulting in service for the Chinese couple.
The just world bias is the general tendency humans have to believe that the world is a just place where people get what they deserve. When we see a person of low socio-economic standing, we may try to rationalize their status by assigning a false bias of negative choices or low moral character to that person. This is not necessarily true, since there are broader forces that are out of our individual control that contribute to poverty.
This belief persists in many other cases and is prevalanet in much of American discourse on crime. In Sherif's study ofthis idea was tested out at a camp and was found to be true.
After the superordinate goal was attained, animosity was significantly reduced between the groups being tested. Tendency for group dynamics to be dependent on the degree of similarity in its participants racial background. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to place more emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone's bad behavior.
An example of this is thinking that a person who didn't answer your call is rude internalbut in reality, they may not have received your message external. If you've found an issue with this question, please let us know. With the help of the community we can continue to improve our educational resources.
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For Example - a child who gets bitten by black lab, later becomes afraid of all dogs. Another Example - little Albert I am assuming you are familiar with Little Albert, so I will give a very general example. John Watson conditioned a baby Albert to be afraid of a white rabbit by showing Albert the rabbit and then slamming two metal pipes together behind Albert's head nice!
The pipes produced a very loud, sudden noise that frightened Albert and made him cry. Watson did this several times multiple trials until Albert was afraid of the rabbit. Previously he would pet the rabbit and play with it.
After conditioning, the sight of the rabbit made Albert scream -- then what Watson found was that Albert began to show similar terrified behaviors to Watson's face just looking at Watson's face made Albert cry. What a shock! What Watson realized was that Albert was responding to the white beard Watson had at the time. So, the fear evoked by the white, furry, rabbit, had generalized to other white, furry things, like Watson's beard.
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